Maltreatment/Trauma & Obesity

The header is “Maltreatment”, you just shouldn’t operate the stomach of traumatized, maltreated, neglected people who are addicted to food to temper their mood. Maybe bariatric surgery is sometimes life-saving. But how often is bariatric surgery a kind of maltreatment because these obese people actually need affection, psychotherapy?
February 2018
JSLS. 2014 Jul-Sep; 18(3): e2014.00117

Outcomes of a Third Bariatric Procedure for Inadequate Weight Loss

Christopher R. Daigle, MD,corresponding author Ali AminianHéctor Romero-TalamásRicard CorcellesJennifer Mackey,  Tomasz Rogula,  Stacy A. Brethauer, and Philip R. Schauer


Background and Objectives:

The robust volume of bariatric surgical procedures has led to significant numbers of patients requiring reoperative surgery because of undesirable results from primary operations. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility, safety, and outcomes of the third bariatric procedure after previous attempts resulted in inadequate results.


We retrospectively identified patients who underwent a third bariatric procedure for inadequate weight loss or significant weight regain after the second operation. Data were analyzed to establish patient demographic characteristics, perioperative parameters, and postoperative outcomes.


A total of 12 patients were identified. Before the first, second, and third procedures, patients had a mean body mass index of 67.1 ± 29.3 kg/m2, 60.9 ± 28.3 kg/m2, and 49.4 ± 19.8 kg/m2, respectively. The third operations (laparoscopic in 10 and open in 2) included Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n = 5), revision of pouch and/or stoma of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n = 3), limb lengthening after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n = 3), and sleeve gastrectomy (n = 1). We encountered 5 early complications in 4 patients, and early reoperative intervention was needed in 2 patients. At 1-year follow-up, the excess weight loss of the cohort was 49.4% ± 33.8%. After a mean follow-up time of 43.0 ± 28.6 months, the body mass index of the cohort reached 39.9 ± 20.8 kg/m2, which corresponded to a mean excess weight loss of 54.4% ± 44.0% from the third operation. At the latest follow-up, 64% of patients had excess weight loss >50% and 45% had excess weight loss >80%.


Reoperative bariatric surgery can be carried out successfully (often laparoscopically), even after 2 previous weight loss procedures.

February 2018
Obes Res. 2005 Jan;13(1):123-30.

Childhood maltreatment in extremely obese male and female bariatric surgery candidates.



To examine rates of self-reported childhood maltreatment in extremely obese bariatric surgery candidates and to explore associations with sex, eating disorder features, and psychological functioning.

Research Methods and Procedures

Three hundred forty (58 men and 282 women) extremely obese consecutive candidates for gastric bypass surgery completed a questionnaire battery. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was given to assess childhood maltreatment.


Overall, 69% of patients self-reported childhood maltreatment: 46% reported emotional abuse, 29% reported physical abuse, 32% reported sexual abuse, 49% reported emotional neglect, and 32% reported physical neglect. Except for higher rates of emotional abuse reported by women, different forms of maltreatment did not differ significantly by sex. Different forms of maltreatment were generally not associated with binge eating, current BMI, or eating disorder features. At the Bonferonni-corrected significance level, emotional abuse was associated with higher eating concerns and body dissatisfaction, and emotional neglect was associated with higher eating concerns. In terms of psychological functioning, at the Bonferonni-corrected level, emotional abuse and emotional neglect were associated with higher depression and lower self-esteem, and physical abuse was associated with higher depression.


Extremely obese bariatric surgery candidates reported rates of maltreatment comparable with those reported by clinical groups and roughly two to three times higher than normative community samples. Reported experiences of maltreatment differed little by sex and were generally not significantly associated with current BMI, binge eating, or eating disorder features. In contrast, maltreatment-notably emotional abuse and neglect-were significantly associated with higher depression and lower self-esteem.


J Clin Psychol Med Settings. 2017 Dec;24(3-4):341-354.

The Importance of Assessing for Childhood Abuse and Lifetime
PTSD in Bariatric Surgery Candidates.

Walsh ERosenstein LDalrymple KChelminski IZimmerman M


For bariatric surgery candidates, history of child abuse and PTSD may be under-recognized or  under-reported at pre-surgical evaluation. On a range of clinically relevant factors, we studied 3045 candidates for bariatric surgery: (1) those with a history of childhood abuse compared to those without such history; and (2) among candidates with a history of abuse, those with a lifetime diagnosis of PTSD compared to those without that diagnosis. We compared them on current and lifetime eating disorders, physical health problems, health behaviors, physical functioning, psychosocial functioning, psychiatric disorders, emotional wellness, body satisfaction, and selfesteem.
We hypothesized that patients with a history of childhood abuse, and within that group,
those with a lifetime PTSD diagnosis, would display greater overall impairment. Patients were interviewed with semi-structured interviews and completed self-report questionnaires. Results showed that (1) patients with a history of childhood abuse exhibited significantly greater impairment than those without abuse; and (2) among candidates with a history of abuse, those with a lifetime history of PTSD displayed significantly greater impairment than those without a PTSD diagnosis. The findings suggest that a history of both childhood abuse and lifetime PTSD should be thoroughly assessed for at pre-surgical evaluation, and that greater attention be paid to the experience of PTSD symptoms in abuse survivors presenting for bariatric surgery.

January 2018

Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013 Dec;21(12):E775-81.


Mason SMFlint AJField AEAustin SBRich-Edwards JW



Child abuse appears to increase obesity risk in adulthood, but the mechanisms are unclear. This study examined the association between child abuse victimization and food addiction, a measure of stress-related overeating, in 57,321 adult participants in the Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII).

Design and Methods

The NHSII ascertained physical and sexual child abuse histories in 2001 and current food addiction in 2009. Food addiction was defined as ≥3 clinically significant symptoms on a modified version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale. Confounder-adjusted risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using modified Poisson regression.


Over 8% of the sample reported severe physical abuse in childhood, while 5.3% reported severe sexual abuse. Eight percent met the criteria for food addiction. Women with food addiction were 6 U of BMI heavier than women without food addiction. Severe physical and severe sexual abuse were associated with roughly 90% increases in food addiction risk (physical abuse RR = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.76, 2.09; sexual abuse RR = 1.87; 95% CI: 1.69, 2.05). The RR for combined severe physical abuse and sexual abuse was 2.40 (95% CI: 2.16, 2.67).


A history of child abuse is strongly associated with food addiction in this population.

December 2017